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新视野 第一册 课后翻译

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Unit1 英译汉 Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying the fundamentals (基础) of modern Western philosophy. He is a mysterious figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his most famous student Plato. Socrates has become well known for his contribution to the field of ethics. His method of teaching, known as the Socratic Method, by asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to explain ideas remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions. He also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology ( 认识论 ) and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a strong foundation for Western philosophy that followed. Socrates was the most colorful figure in the history of ancient philosophy. His fame was widespread in his own time, and his name soon became a household word although he constructed no philosophical system, established no school, and founded no sect (宗派). 苏格拉底是古希腊哲学家, 被誉为现代西方哲学的奠基人。

他是一个谜一般的人 物, 人们主要通过后期的一些古典作家的叙述,尤其是他最著名的学生柏拉图的 作品 去了解他。

苏格拉底以他对伦理学的贡献而闻名。

他的教学法亦称为苏格 拉底法, 即通过提问和回答来激发批判性思维以及阐述观点。

该方法在各种讨论 中仍被普遍 使用。

他还在认识论和逻辑领域作出了重大而深远的贡献。

他的思 想和方法所带来的影响一直是后来的西方哲学的坚实基础。

苏格拉底是古代哲学 史上最丰富多彩的 人物。

他在他那个时代已威名远扬。

虽然他未曾建立什么哲 学,未曾设立什么学派,也未曾创立什么宗派,但他的名字很快就变得家喻 户晓了。

汉译英 孔子是中国历史上著名的思想家、教育家,是儒家学派(Confucianism)的创始 人,被尊称为古代的"圣人"(sage)。

他的言论和生平活动记录在《论语》 (The Analects)一书中。

《论语》是中国古代文化的经典著作,对后来历代的思想家、 文学家、家产生了很大影响。

不研究《论语》,就不能真正把握中国几千年 的传统文化。

孔子的很多思想,尤其是其教育思想,对中国社会产生了深远的影 响。

在 21 世纪的今天,孔子的学说不仅受到中国人的重视,而且也越来越受到 整个国际社会的重视。

Confucius was a great thinker and educator in Chinese history. He was the founder of Confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient "sage". His words and life story were recorded in The Analects. An enduring classic of ancient Chinese culture, The Analects has had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after Confucius. Without studying this book, one could hardly truly understand the thousands-of-years' traditional Chinese culture. Much of Confucius' thought, especially his thought on education, has had a profound influence on Chinese society. In the 21st century, Confucian thought not only retains the attention of the Chinese, but it also wins an increasing attention from the international community. Unit2

英译汉 Christmas is a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated on December 25 by millions of people around the world. It commemorates (纪念) the birth of Jesus Christ. The festival dated from as early as 336 AD. Gradually it evolved into a religious as well as secular ( 非宗教的 ) celebration, celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians. Today Christmas is observed as an important festival and public holiday around the world. Christmas customs differ in different countries. Popular modern customs of the holiday include an exchange of Christmas cards and gifts, Christmas singing, church attendance, the display of various Christmas decorations and trees, family gatherings, and a special meal preparation. To small children, the festival is full of fantasy and surprise. Legend (传说) has it that Santa Claus will enter each house through the chimney and bring gifts to well-behaved children on Christmas Eve. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival heighten economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has also become a significant event and a key sales period for businesses. 圣诞节是一个被广泛庆祝的文化节日,全世界有许许多多的人在 1 2 月 2 5 日庆 祝这一节日。

它是为了纪念耶稣基督的诞辰。

该节日最早可追溯到公元 3 3 6 年。

渐渐地,这一节日演变为一个既是宗教又是非宗教的节日,越来越多的非基 督徒也庆祝圣诞节。

如今, 圣诞节在全球被作为一个重大的节日和公共假日来庆 祝。

不同国家的圣诞节风俗也各不相同。

现代流行的圣诞节风俗包括交换圣诞贺 卡和圣诞礼物、唱圣诞歌曲、参加教堂活动、摆放各种圣诞装饰品和圣诞树、举 行家 庭聚会以及准备一顿特别的大餐。

对小孩子们来说,这个节日充满了幻想 和惊喜。

据传说,圣诞老人会在圣诞夜从烟囱进入每户人家,给乖巧听话的孩子 带来礼物。

由于圣诞节送礼物以及许多其他方面推动了基督徒和非基督徒的经 济活动,圣诞节也因此成为商家的一个重大活动和主要销售季。

汉译英 每 年 农 历 (Chinese lunar calendar)八 月 十 五 是我 国 的 传 统 节 日 —— 中 秋 节(the Mid-Autumn Festival)。

这时是一年秋季的中期,所以被 称为中秋。

中秋节的一项重要活动是赏月。

夜晚,人们赏明月、吃月饼,共庆中 秋佳节。

中秋节也是家庭团圆的时刻,远在他乡的游子,会借此寄托自己对故乡 和亲人的思念之情。

中秋节的习俗很多, 都寄托着人们对美好生活的热爱和向往。

自 2008 年起,中秋节成为中国的法定节假日。

According to the Chinese lunar calendar, August 15 of every year is a traditional Chinese festival — the Mid-Autumn Festival. This day is the middle of autumn, so it is called Mid-Autumn. One of the important Mid-Autumn Festival activities is to enjoy the moon. On that night, people gather together to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival, looking up at the bright moon and eating moon cakes. The festival is also a time for family reunion. People living far away from home will express their feelings of missing their hometowns and families at this festival. There are many customs to celebrate the festival, all expressing people's love and hope for a happy life. Since 2008, the Mid-Autumn Festival has become an official national holiday in China. Unit3

英译汉 The London Underground is a rapid transit (交通运输系统) system in the United Kingdom, serving a large part of Greater London. The underground system is also known as the Tube, due to the characteristic shape of the subway tunnels. It all started in the mid-1800s. The Tube was the world's first underground train system, with the first section opening in 1863. Since then it has grown to an underground masterpiece (杰作) of 12 lines, 275 stations, and over 250 miles of rail track, 45% of which is underground. It is the fourth largest metro system in the world in terms of route miles. It also has one of the largest numbers of stations. As an affordable and easy way to get around London, the Tube remains the first choice for millions of commuters each day, as well as tourists visiting the city on holidays. The Tube has been an international icon for London. The London Underground celebrated its 150 years of operation in 2013, with various events marking the milestone (里程碑). 伦敦地铁是英国的一个快速交通运输系统,服务于大伦敦的大部分地区。

地铁系 统因其地铁隧道的典型形状也被称为地下管道。

伦敦地铁始建于 19 世纪中期, 是世界上最早的地下铁路系统。

它的第一段地铁于 1863 年开始运营。

自此,伦 敦地铁不断延伸,发展成为一个包括 12 条线路、275 个车站、铁轨总长超过 250 英里的地铁杰作,其中有 45%在地下运行。

就路线长度而言,它是世界上第四 大地铁系统, 也是车站数量最多的地铁系统之一。

作为一个走遍伦敦的经济便捷 的途径,伦敦地铁一向是每天数百万通勤者以及在节假日游历伦敦的游客的首 选。

伦敦地铁已成为伦敦的一个国际标志。

2013 年伦敦举办了各种各样的活动, 庆祝地铁运营 150 周年,纪念这一里程碑。

汉译英 郑和是中国历史上最著名的航海家(maritime explorer)。

公元 1405 年,明朝的 者为了稳固边防( border defense )和开展海上贸易,派郑和下西洋( the Western Seas)。

在此后的 28 年里,郑和带领船队七下西洋,前后出海的人员有 10 多万人,访问了 30 多个国家和地区。

船队纵横南亚、西亚,一直到非洲大 陆。

郑和下西洋是世界航海(navigation)史上的壮举,它展现了郑和卓越的航 海和组织才能,同时展现了明朝的国力和国威(national strength and prestige), 加强了明朝和海外各国之间的关系。

Zheng He was the most famous maritime explorer in Chinese history. In 1405 AD, the ruler of the Ming Dynasty sent Zheng He on a voyage to the Western Seas in order to strengthen border defense and develop trade by sea. In the following 28 years, Zheng He led his fleet, made seven voyages to the Western Seas with over 100,000 crew members in total, and visited more than 30 countries and regions. The fleet traveled far into South Asia and West Asia, and made all the way to the continent of Africa. Zheng He's voyages to the Western Seas were a great feat in the world's navigation history. It showed Zheng He's outstanding navigation and organization talents; meanwhile, it exhibited the national strength and prestige of the Ming Dynasty, and strengthened the relationships between the Ming Dynasty and the overseas countries. Unit4

英译汉 As one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia through China, Marco Polo is perhaps the most well-known foreign merchant and voyager to the Chinese people. He traveled extensively (广泛地) with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. He remained in China for 17 of those years. His book The Travels of Marco Polo depicts his journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the Far East, including China, India, and Japan. From his written accounts the Westerners learned of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, printing, paper money, and silk for the first time. The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries during the age of the European voyages of discovery and conquest (征服). In the centuries since his death, Marco Polo has received the recognition that failed to come his way during his lifetime. Marco Polo's story has inspired countless other adventurers to set off and see the world. 作为通过中国游历亚洲的首批欧洲人之一,马可•波罗可能是中国人最熟知的外 国商人和航海家。

从 1271 年到 1295 年,他和他的家人游历广泛,遍及欧洲和 亚洲。

期间,他在中国留居了 17 年。

他的著作《马可•波罗游记》描述了他游 历亚洲的旅程, 让欧洲人首次全面领略了包括中国、印度和日本在内的远东地区 的情况。

从他的文字叙述中,西方人第一次了解到瓷器、煤炭、、印刷术、 以及丝绸。

在 15 世纪末和 16 世纪欧洲发现与征服的大航海时代,马可• 波罗所记录的大量新的地理信息得到了广泛使用。

在他去世后的这几个世纪里, 马可•波罗获得了他在有生之年未曾获得的赞誉。

马可•波罗的故事鼓舞了其他无 数的探险者去踏上征程,发现世界。

汉译英 中国航天业开创于 1956 年。

几十年来,中国航天事业创造了一个又一个奇迹。

1970 年,中国成功发射了第一颗人造地球卫星,成为世界上第五个独立自主研 制和发射人造地球卫星的国家。

1992 年,中国开始实施载人航天飞行工程 (manned spaceflight program)。

2003 年,中国成功发射了"神舟五号"载人飞船, 使中国成为第三个发射载人飞船的国家。

2007 年发射了"嫦娥一号", 即第一颗绕 月球飞行(lunar-orbiting)的人造卫星。

2013 年,第五艘载人飞船"神舟十号"发 射成功,为中国空间站的建设打下了基础。

China's space industry was launched in 1956. Over the past decades, China's space industry has created one miracle after another. In 1970 China launched its first man-made earth satellite, ranking China the fifth country in the world to independently develop and launch man-made earth satellites. In 1992 China began to carry out the manned spaceflight program. In 2003 China launched Shenzhou-5, a manned spaceship. The successful launch made China the third country to launch manned spaceships. In 2007 Chang'e-1, the first lunar-orbiting man-made satellite, was sent to space. In 2013 Shenzhou-10, the fifth manned spaceship, was launched successfully, laying the foundation for building the Chinese Space Station. Unit5 英译汉

The first written records of the ancient Olympic Games date to 776 BC. The ancient Olympics were held every four years between August 6 and September 19 during a religious festival honoring Zeus (宙斯). The first modern Olympics were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. The Olympic symbol consists of five interlaced rings of equal dimensions, representing the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. The Olympics truly took off as an international sporting event after 1924, when the 8th Olympic Games were held in Paris. Some 3,000 athletes from 44 nations competed that year, and for the first time the Games featured a closing ceremony. The Winter Olympics debuted (问 世) that year, including such events as figure skating, ice hockey, bobsledding and the biathlon. Eighty years later, when the 2004 Summer Olympics returned to Athens for the first time in more than a century, nearly 11,000 athletes from 201 countries competed, breaking the then record of participating countries. 有关古代奥林匹克运动会的最早文字记载可追溯至公元前 776 年。

古代奥运会每 4 年举办一次,在 8 月 6 日与 9 月 19 日之间的一个纪念宙斯的宗教节日期间举 行。

第一届现代奥运会于 1896 年在希腊雅典举办。

奥运会的标志由五个大小相 同的套环组成, 代表着五大洲的联合和来自世界各地运动员的大聚会。

奥运会真 正腾飞、成为一项国际体育盛会是在 1924 年之后,即第 8 届奥运会在巴黎举办 之后。

这一年,来自 44 个国家约 3,000 名运动员同场竞技,并且第一次在奥运 会上增加了闭幕式这一仪式。

同年,冬季奥运会首次亮相,比赛项目包括花样滑 冰、冰球、雪橇和冬季两项运动。

80 年后,2004 年夏季奥运会在相隔一个多世 纪后再次在雅典举办,来自 201 个国家的近 11,000 名运动员展开竞技,创下参 赛国数量之最。

汉译英 太极拳(Tai Chi)是一种武术(martial arts)项目,也是一种健身运动,在中国 有着悠久的历史。

太极拳动作缓慢而柔和, 适合任何年龄、 性别、 体型的人练习。

太极拳既可防身,又能强身健体,因而深受中国人的喜爱。

太极拳在发展的过程 中,借鉴并吸收了中国传统哲学、医术、武术的合理内容( element),成为特 色鲜明的一项运动。

作为中国特有的一种运动形式,太极拳也越来越受到众多外 国朋友的喜爱。

Tai Chi is a kind of martial arts, and a fitness exercise as well. It has a long history in China. With slow and gentle movements, Tai Chi is suitable for people of any age, sex, or body type to practice. It can be used to provide self-defense as well as build the body. Therefore, it has become very popular among Chinese people. During its development, Tai Chi borrowed and absorbed desirable elements from traditional Chinese philosophy, medicine, and martial arts, and it has developed into a sport with unique features. As a unique sport in China, Tai Chi is also gaining increasing popularity among many foreign friends. Unit6 英译汉 Gap year (间隔年) refers to a period of time —not necessarily a year — in which students take time off and do something other than schooling, such as travel or work.

The year out is most commonly taken after high school and before going to university. During this time, a student might travel, engage in volunteer work or undertake (承担) a working holiday abroad. A new trend is to participate in international education programs that combine language study, home stays, cultural exchange, community service, and independent study. The practice of taking a year out developed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. It has grown very popular among students in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. In the United States, however, the practice of taking a year off remains the exception (例外). But in recent years, taking a year out has become slightly more common for Americans. Some 40,000 American students participated in 2013 in gap year programs, an increase of almost 20% since 2006. Universities such as Princeton University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology have formal policies allowing students to defer (延期) admission. 间隔年指的是学生休假不去上学而去旅游或工作等的一段时间,但不一定是一 年。

间隔年通常选在高中毕业和进入大学之前的一段时间。

在这段时间里,学生 可以旅 游、参加志愿者工作或者在国外边打工边度假。

一种新潮流是参加集语 言学习、住家、文化交流、社区服务和自主学习于一体的国际教育活动。

间隔年 的做法于 20 世纪 60 年代兴起于英国。

它在英国、澳大利亚、新西兰和加拿大 已经变得非常流行。

但是在美国, 间隔年的做法仍然只是个别现象。

不过近年来, 间隔年对美国人 来说变得稍微普遍起来。

2013 年有大约四万美国学生参加了间 隔年活动,比 2006 年增加了近 20%。

普林斯顿大学、哈佛大学、麻省理工学院 等大学都有明 文规定允许学生延迟入学。

汉译英 改革开放以来,中国的教育事业得到了快速发展,取得了引人瞩目的成就。

中国 把教育摆在优先发展的地位,坚持科教兴国(revitalize the country),全面 提倡素质教育 (quality-oriented education)。

同时,积极推进教育公平,保障人人 有受教育的机会。

中国的教育成就反映在两个不同的层面:一个是全面普及了九 年义务教育 (nine-year compulsory education),另一个是实现了高等教育大众 化(mass higher education)。

教育的发展为中国的经济发展和社会进步作出了重 大贡献。

近年来,为适应社会、经济发展的需要,中国不断加快培养各领域 的急需人 才。

Since its economic reform and opening-up to the world, China's education has gone through rapid development and made remarkable achievements. The Chinese government gives top priority to the development of education, persists in revitalizing the country by science and education, and fully advocates quality-oriented education. Meanwhile, it actively promotes equality in education to guarantee everyone access to education. China's achievements in education can be reflected in two different layers: One is the popularization of the nine-year compulsory education; the other is the realization of mass higher education. The development of education has made significant contributions to China's economic development and social progress. In recent years, to satisfy the needs of social and economic development, the Chinese government has sped up the training of qualif personnel urgently needed in various fields.

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